Masamune Shirow's manga and anime series Ghost in the Shell takes place in a cyberpunk version of Earth in the near future. The series focuses on Japan, but several other nations figure prominently in some stories. The world of Ghost in the Shell features significant advances in technology, the most significant of which is the cyberbrain, a mechanical casing for the human brain that allows mental interface with the Internet and other networks.
1.3 Thermo-optical camouflage
1.4 Think tanks
2.1.1 Public security bureaus
2.2 American Empire
2.6 Siak Republic
Fully encased cyberbrains revealed by deadly blunt impact, as seen in Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
A cyberbrain (電脳, dennō?) is a device in the fictional universe of Ghost in the Shell by Masamune Shirow (and also in Shirow's later work Real Drive) that acts as a self-contained module containing, protecting, and interfacing an artificially augmented brain. The "brain" includes the brain stem but excludes the eyes, optic nerves, and most of the spine. By being physically self-contained, the cyberbrain allows the artificially augmented brain inside to function or be physically stored inside a body, to be physically transferred between bodies, or to be temporarily stored or transported outside any body. Cyberbrain implants, in conjunction with micromachines, allow the brain to initiate and maintain a connection to computer networks or other individuals who also possess a cyberbrain. This capability results in a number of unforeseen psychosocial phenomena whose emergence is a major plot element of the various Ghost in the Shell stories.
The process of augmentation of the brain in this fashion is referred to in the series as "cyberization" (電脳化, dennōka?). It is not necessary for a subject to undergo complete cyberization, acquiring a full-body prosthesis, to support the cyberized brain; an individual may choose to only have their brain cyberized. Cyberization is imagined to take three distinct forms:
Minimal cyberization, for the purposes of external memory and wireless communication, leaving the brain itself essentially identical to its biological form. Nano-scale interfaces are placed in the cerebellar region, permitting a pluggable interface, and allowing prosthetic parts to be upgraded. Physica